GOANA. Confident of its development in the reproduction field, Ceva is, and has to in numerous genetic improvement projects, such as those done in Senegal, . GOANA focuses on expanding area under cultivation, diversifying cereals and The aim of GOANA is for Senegal to attain food self-sufficiency by and. Senegal River Valley, the center of rice production in Senegal. This paper first Grande Offensive Agricole pour la Nouriture et l’Abondance: GOANA; Sénégal.
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The beloved, humble peanut is not really a nut at all—it semegal in the legume family. Peanuts grow in the earth, at the roots of their leafy plants, unlike tree nuts like almonds or cashews.
But the most important species within the groundnut family is by far the peanut, even in the West African countries where the other types of groundnut originated and are still consumed.
West Africa—especially Senegal—used to play a massive role in the global peanut industry.
Senegal / – La GOANA: Agriculture, fruits and vegetables – 4 st. MNH – Stamps-Africa
In the s, Senegal was responsible for nearly a quarter of all peanut exports. Inby contrast, Senegal was producing only about one percent of globally traded peanuts. This piece will look at what went wrong with Senegalese groundnuts and some ways to fix it.
Global background Senegalese peanuts Other production barriers Senegalese groundnuts: China, India and the United States are the biggest producers and consumers of peanuts in the world.
In India, production is anticipated to be lackluster due to unfavorable weather, which is likely to depress exports. Chinese production is also expected to be lower than usual, because of floods in southern Chinese groundnut-growing areas and simultaneous droughts in the northern production zones. This may in turn translate to elevated imports into China, and potentially favorable prices for producers in the coming few months. But due to senegaal ever-increasing demand for peanuts and peanut oil in the country, it has recently become a consistent small importer.
India and the United States, on the other hand, are much less likely to import groundnuts, as both consistently produce more than enough to satisfy domestic demand. Inthe highest proportion of exported peanuts to produced peanuts among these countries was the United States, at about one-fifth.
Some of these countries, like the Netherlands, go on to re-export these groundnuts as higher-value, processed items, seegal as ingredients in such processed items. About one-third of groundnuts are gana as nuts—in snack foods, in confectionary items, in peanut butters, and the like. The remaining majority giana processed into oil, which is commonly used as a form of cooking oil in many parts of the world, especially China, India, Myanmar, and Nigeria.
Prices for peanut oil peaked in mid, while peanut prices peaked in mid China, unsurprisingly, will be the major driver of growth in peanut oil demand, whereas demand for non-oil peanuts is likely to be more diverse. Senegal was once one of the most significant worldwide players in the groundnut industry.
After decades of decline due to ineffective policies and poor agricultural management, the West African country is now hoping to regain its former peanut glory. The basin covers a large swathe of central and western Senegal, north of Gambia. This area is large indeed: Further, the groundnut sector both directly and indirectly employs about 1 million Senegalese people close to 7 percent of the Senegalese population.
Groundnuts typically require between and mm of rain to achieve good yields this is similar to how much water corn needs to grow successfully.
Senegalese droughts, which are not uncommon, have devastated production levels in the past, recently in and The s were very good years for Senegalese peanuts. At the peak inSenegal produced 1. Meanwhile, global tastes in oils began to diversify as soybean oil, sunflower oil, and others became increasingly popular. China quickly filled the void left by Senegal and others, increasing production drastically thanks to agricultural reforms and the increased adoption of new varieties.
Over the next two decades, Senegal was only able to achieve strong groundnut production inand But after that, production trended downward, and was extremely erratic, so that the country did not again achieve production in excess of 1 million tonnes untiland then again in Senegal is now striving to regain its footing in the world groundnut market, if not in terms of the proportion of the world peanut market it controls there are more peanuts being traded today than there were in the s and sthen at least in terms of the absolute quantity of groundnuts produced.
InSenegal was producing just 60 percent of the groundnuts it had produced in Yields have actually declined since peak production five decades ago: This decline is happening in a context in which yields for groundnuts and most other crops in most parts of the world are increasing. Senegalese groundnut yields are just a fraction of those of industrialized producers like Argentina or the United States, and are slightly lower than those of India.
These low, stagnating yields result from the usual combination of lacking inputs, little access to capital, and ineffective agricultural techniques. If Senegal is to once again become a major groundnut producer, its farmers will have to have access to the types of inputs and education that will allow them to increase their yields. Of course, there are issues beyond yields affecting the Senegalese groundnut sector. Some of these issues are out of the control of farmers or the state.
For example, in the years anddramatic dips in both production and yields are visible in the above charts. Both these dips are attributable to major droughts that devastated much of the Senegalese agricultural sector in those years. The groundnut basin of central Senegal was effectively the epicenter of the drought, and production fell by about 70 percent. The next major drought was in —after 2 years of bumper harvests during which Senegal finally managed to once again attain production greater than 1 million tonnes.
Senegalese farmers in the north and northeast of the country were hit particularly hard. Following each of these weather events, Senegalese groundnut production took some time to bounce back, as farmers were unable goanq unwilling to plant groundnuts so soon after a disaster. There is also a visible dip in both production and yields in due to floods. Although the rains that season were delayed and sebegal slowly, they fell heavily in the final weeks of the rainy season, resulting in severe floods that were particularly devastating in the northern parts of the country.
Peanuts come in a number of different varieties, all of which have a particular use. In Senegal, most of the peanuts that are produced are destined to be crushed into oil. It therefore becomes extremely important that producers choose the optimal varieties for this purpose. As the suitability of seeds deteriorates or fluctuates, it can take more and more peanuts to produce the same amount of peanut oil.
This can be bad for the farmers, whose product will be worth less. Low oil yields are also bad for processors, for whom it will be more cumbersome to produce oil. Senegal urgently needs to successfully combat aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are produced by a fungus within the aspergillus species, which are likely to attack maize, peanuts, tree nuts and cottonseed.
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These fungi can spread onto crops when they are still in the ground, but are more likely to spread after harvests, when crops are being stored. Therefore, farmers lacking access to appropriate threshing, drying, and storage methods are particularly prone to having aflatoxin-contaminated crops.
This relationship between inadequate post-harvest handling technology and aflatoxins explains why contamination is more likely in developing countries. Evidence indicates that continued aflatoxin consumption can lead to immune system suppression and liver cancer.
Acute toxicity occurs when usually livestock consumes large amounts of aflatoxin-infected products. The poison inhibits their metabolic abilities and can lead to death. The susceptibility of livestock to aflatoxins means that dairy products can also be infected with toxins. Most countries have limits as to the maximum amount of aflatoxin permissible in agricultural products. Strict maximums set by importers like the European Union and the United States have meant that exports of agricultural products from areas prone to aflatoxins, like Senegal, have suffered.
Senegal is therefore looking to improve its aflatoxin mitigation strategy—not just to boost its exports, but also because aflatoxins pose a threat to the health of its citizens. Right now, the Senegalese groundnut market is in an exciting place.
The CNIA would review this purchase price every year, and implement any changes to prices at the beginning of the season.
The CNIA offered the same price to producers regardless of their location in the country. It absorbed any transportation-related costs. Producers would sell their products, at the swnegal determined price, to processors. Processors, who were also receiving government subsidies, would crush the groundnuts into oil ready for export.
Both farmers and processors frequently expressed their frustration with the system. Farmers insisted that the prices that they were receiving were too low, and did not reflect international prices. Processors argued that the prices they were forced to pay to farmers seengal too high, and did not adequately take into account questions about quality and oil content.
Furthermore, groundnut production was outstripping the capacity of oil processors. This in turn helped lead to a tense, inefficient situation in which the government was delayed in handing out its subsidy payments to processors, and processors were in turn very late to pay their supplying farmers. Inthe Senegalese government loosened its groundnut policy, first by removing the subsidies it had been offering processors, and second by allowing unprocessed groundnut exports.
This allowed farmers to bypass the CNIA and export all forms of peanut other than seeds. As a result of this liberalization, buyers from around the world have begun to flock to Senegal, offering higher prices than the CNIA. Buyers from China, India, and Lebanon have begun to buy groundnuts from Senegalese producers.
China has especially begun to play a large role in that market. Although this was a good sign for peanut farmers that year, it also led to a degree of overconfidence: This was the result hoana poor nut quality and high aflatoxin incidence. This in turn led to a higher rate of waste, as well as some farmers having to settle for lower prices than they had the previous year.
As mentioned earlier, an improvement in seed quality and aflatoxin control methods would allow farmers to obtain better prices for their goods—prices that are more reflective of the much-higher average international price of peanuts.
The Senegalese groundnut sdnegal is in an exciting state of goaba. Recognizing this, a number of buyers and actors have begun to move into the space since Investment from Chinese peanut processors has been particularly prominent in the Senegalese headlines. With the liberalization of the export market, producers have new, more enticing incentives.
However, in order for farmers sdnegal truly reap the benefits of the peanuts they produce, they need to have access to quality seeds. On a more macro level, Senegal needs to develop a strategy to better handle the impact of drought. As was apparent following the hoana of andsuch weather events are not only extremely damaging, but also have long-lasting effects.
Introducing better seed varietals, as well as better insuring farmers so that they are capable of quickly bouncing back, has become essential.
Senegal 2009 / 2010 – La GOANA: Agriculture, fruits and vegetables – 4 st. MNH
Lastly, Senegal needs to mitigate the effects of aflatoxins. We receive information about you from your use of the Services generally.